break down each of the themes into sub-themes. Use an outliner such as Microsoft Word Outline View. (On the View Tab) Start with an Introduction, each of your chosen themes, and a Conclusion. You can sub-divide down to futher levels, which will take you to individual paragraphs Detailed example: Concentration in the Audit Market Demonstration from last week’s grid: Debt in the UK
What reporting verbs should I use? Avoid over-using “states” and “says”. You may need to use tentative or evaluative verbs. Tentative verbs are often used to show that findings are incomplete or difficult to generalise from. e.g. Research suggests that a majority of people prefer email to… (Mahlab 1995). Wang (2003) indicates that such results are not necessarily… Evaluative verbs can pack in extra meaning by incorporating your evaluation of the text. e.g. Jacob concedes that the test is not 100 per cent reliable. This is much stronger than “Jacob states that… ” since concedes includes the judgement that Jacob was reluctant to make the acknowledgement.
Some other strong reporting words are: describe, contend, examine, assert, dispute, claim, purport, persuade, refute, concur, recommend, object, dismiss, contradict, propose, examine, observe (adapted from Weisberg,R. & Buker, S. (1990). Writing up research: experimental research report writing for students of English.Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Regents.) Should I use quotes or paraphrases? Quotations are usually used only for: • definitions of technical terms or key words and concepts • particularly significant phrasing • maintaining the writer’s specific intention. Paraphrases are the main means of citing authors. The advantages of paraphrasing are: • showing that you understand and can interpret the original material • allowing you to maintain your own voice. http://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/lsu/content/2_AssessmentTasks/assess_pdf/PG%20lit%20r
The PROPOSAL Your Proposal is the plan for your final ISAC research document. You are expected to identify a relevant topic (if it has changed from the topic chosen for the first assignment this should be justified as an appendix to your text), and clearly explore an appropriate research question (or questions). You must also discuss the significance of the main issues and theoretical debates around your research questions/ problems, by developing arguments based upon the secondary sources you have reviewed. Tutors will respond to requests for advice by email, but note that for this assignment you are not invited to submit drafts for comment. Template for ISAC PROPOSAL explained Title – suggesting focus/ aim of project clearly Rationale – why is this topic worth investigating? NB (Not the value to you personally) Research Objectives – why are the specific accomplishment you hope to achieve at the end of study? Research Questions – what is the issue or problem that you are investigating? Phrase up to 3 sub-questions which you will attempt to answer through your literature review discussion. These may later be useful as sub-headings to divide your discussion into clear sections.
Literature Review – identify at least (minimum) 5 credible and academically rigorous sources upon which to base your arguments for the literature review. These should be formatted according to APA referencing style. Indicate for each (1-2 sentences) what it contributes to your case Report Plan (using an outline such as in Outline View) – briefly identifying key sections including main area(s) of theory/ academic debate relevant to topic and the current state of research/ understanding of topic. This section should mention all the sources above, but it is also likely to include other materials. Correct Harvard citation and referencing required. Other sections such as research methods, analysis, discussion and conclusions are likely to be relevant depending on your topic. List of References – identify at least (minimum) 5 credible and academically rigorous key literature sources upon which to base your arguments for the literature review. These should be properly formatted according to APA referencing style