Victim Precipitation” Please respond to the following:250 words
By looking at the role of victims in crime, victim precipitation looks beyond the criminal to determine how the victim contributed to the occurrence of the crime. From the first e-Activity, provide an explanation of how victims contribute to the occurrence of crime. From the second e-Activity, analyze the routine activities and lifestyle theories in order to explain victim precipitation.
Criminological Theory Summaries Theory Main Points Theorists/Researchers Classical Crime occurs when the benefits outweigh the Beccaria costs—when people pursue self-interest in the absence of effective punishments. Crime is a free- willed choice. See also deterrence, rational choice. Positivist Crime is caused or determined. Lombroso placed Lombroso more emphasis on biological deficiencies, whereas Guerry later scholars would emphasize psychological and Quetelet sociological factors. Use science to determine the factors associated with crime. Individual Trait Criminals differ from noncriminals on a number Glueck & Glueck of biological and psychological traits. These traits Mednick cause crime in interaction with the social Caspi environment. Moffitt Social Disorganization Disorganized communities cause crime because Shaw & McKay informal social controls break down and criminal Sampson cultures emerge. They lack collective efficacy to Bursik & Grasmick fight crime and disorder. Differential Association Crime is learned through associations with Sutherland & Cressey Social Learning criminal definitions. These definitions might be Sykes & Matza Subcultural generally approving of criminal conduct or be Akers neutralizations that justify crime only under Wolfgang & Ferracuti certain circumstances. Interacting with antisocial Anderson peers is a major cause of crime. Criminal behavior will be repeated and become chronic if reinforced. When criminal subcultures exist, then many individuals can learn to commit crime in one location and crime rates—including violence— may become very high. Anomie The gap between the American Dream’s goal of Merton Institutional-Anomie economic success and the opportunity to obtain Messner & Rosenfeld this goal creates structural strain. Norms weaken andhttps://www…com/healthcare-organizations-accredited-by-the-joint-commission/https://www…com/healthcare-organizations-accredited-by-the-joint-commission/ ‘anomie’ ensues, thus creating high crime rates. When other social institutions (such as the family) are weak to begin with or…