Many known interventions and resources for tobacco use and nicotine addiction result in interventions for people who are already smoking or who have been smoking for long periods of time. The most basic intervention for tobacco cessation would be through primary care physicians. The five A’s model (Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange) is highly recommended for these physicians use for nicotine addicts (Okuyemi, 2006). This intervention method is based off of communication between healthcare physicians and patients. Interventions within healthcare professions that are physician recommendations include face-to-face meetings, telephone counseling, and self-help materials. Self-help materials are the source for majority of nicotine addicted individuals in order to try and quit smoking or using tobacco products. These materials include nicotine patches, spray, inhalers, lozenge, and gum (Okuyemi, 2006). Sometimes many of these physician recommended interventions can be combined to have a stronger effect while working towards cessation. Additionally, treatments may also be another option with regards to individuals who already have an addiction to tobacco. These treatments include nonpharmacologic therapy and pharmacotherapy. All of these interventions have been implemented to facilitate nicotine cessation.
Even though these strategies can be effective for nicotine addiction at any age, more interventions are necessary to reduce and ultimately, eliminate the use of tobacco in adolescents. The easier it is for youth to have access to tobacco products, the easier it is for them to use these products and become addicted. Henningfield, Moolchan, and Zeller discuss different forms of intervention methods, that will help to promote and achieve tobacco cessation in adolescents, in their article Strategies to Reduce Tobacco Addiction in Youth. The first intervention strategy is comprehensive tobacco education and control where awareness of the harm of tobacco use and how to refuse offers to smoke are taught through an education course (Henningfield, 2003). The American Legacy Foundation, as well as, Wakefield and Chaloupka, are examples of programs who adapted this intervention method. Another intervention method would be to increase the cost of tobacco and decrease the access to it at the same time. The idea behind this intervention is logical in the sense that even though inflation in price affects adults as well, adolescents are more sensitive to price increases. By decreasing access, it could also increase the price as well because of FDA regulation of banning small packages of cigarettes. This intervention method has high potential to reduce tobacco toxin exposure and ultimately limit dependence on tobacco (Henningfield, 2003).
In the Pima County community, tobacco cessation has been put into effect in multiple ways. The Pima County Board of Supervisors proclaims November “Blackout Tobacco in Pima County Month”. This intervention is implemented by the Pima County Health Department to encourage the members within the community to cease tobacco use one month at a time (Tobacco Prevention, 2018). Pima County also participates in Kick Butts Day, the national day of anti-smoking activism, in order to raise awareness about the negative effects of tobacco use and teaching youth how to remain tobacco free. Another intervention that the Pima County community carries out is called Tobacco and Chronic Disease Prevention Program. The program’s mission is to develop partnerships and collaborate with others to address tobacco and chronic disease education in various settings. (Tobacco, 2018). Because Pima County wants to improve the rate of tobacco use in adolescents, prevention programs have been created with the kids being the “promoters”of these programs. The first tobacco prevention program is Counter Strike. Counter Strike allows teenagers to be the ones making a difference within the community as they work with law enforcement to help pinpoint the stores selling tobacco to minors. Youth volunteers go into tobacco retailers and try to purchase tobacco products and if the retailer sells them tobacco, they receive a citation for selling to minors by the Attorney General’s Office private investigator (Tobacco Prevention, 2018). This program has been implemented since 2002 and continues to be a method of prevention within Pima County today with hopes to reduce youth access to tobacco through retail monitoring. The other youth tobacco prevention program is known as STAND Youth Tobacco Coalitions. This program has its focus specifically directed towards teenagers. These youth coalitions work through community involvement, peer education, and advocating environmental change, to reduce youth tobacco initiation and exposure of secondhand smoke within Pima County (Tobacco Prevention, 2018).
A School Health
Action Planning and Evaluation System (SHAPES) was used to conduct a cross-sectional study on 26,379 9th-12th graders in Ontario, Canada to better understand why youth smokers don’t respond well to conventional cessation approaches. Most youth smokers
had the intention to quit, but because of negative attitudes towards conventional cessation approaches, they didn’t take the time to inform themselves on potential programs or were simply not interested. The aim of this study was to collect “attitudes of smokers toward common smoking cessation approaches and factors associated with intentions to join a school-based cessation program” (Leatherdale & Mcdonald, 2007).