Organizations as Open systems,Two sets of system processes: morphostasis; morphogenesis,Open systems still have sorts of boundaries: need to expend energies to maintain or redraw the boundaries. But for analysts, not easy to determine them: open system co

Contingency theory stresses that design of organizations is or should be contingent, need to take into account various factors, such as size or scale, technology, geography, uncertainty, individual predispositions of participants, resource dependence, national or cultural differences, scope and organizational life cycle etc.

Weick did not envision all sources of uncertainty in environment would be removed completely. Rather, some uncertainty does and must remain if organization is to be able to survive into a new and different future. “Organizations continue to exist only if they maintain a balance between flexibility and stability.” (cf. morphogenesis and morphostasis)

Questions • What implications of open system perspective could be? What can you learn from open system perspective. • What might be missing in open system perspective? • Any concrete illustration? In home country experiences or Taiwan? • Is this open system universal? What about China and Indo‐Pacific? • Is there cultural or other possible factor that may come into play to the extent that treating organization evenly as an open system is inadequate?

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