Organizations and Institutions in China and Indo ‐Pacific (OICIP),Environment of organizations: more conceptions: as supply chain, sectors • Environment involves Inter‐organizational network/supply chain: the flow of raw material that forms a linear conne

You need to choose a company in Asia and give a description and you need to use 2 theories that are on the powerpoint.

Agenda • Schedule revisited: Next Tuesday (Oct. 24) and Nov. 14, class meeting beginning at 14:10 and ending at 18:00. Other than that, 13:10‐17:00 • final class meeting/final paper due: Dec. 19 • Short reports due: Oct. 31, Nov. 28 • Confirmation of sign up assignment/reading presentation options • Review/example of Open system vs. natural vs. rational system • Organizations and Environment (Levels, strategies, characteristics) • Short film: keynote speech by W. Richard Scott on medical organizations and their environment. Open system vs. natural vs rational system • Example: NCCU • Rational system: look for organizational chart (structure) and goal: how internationalization could be achieved: OIC operation as the focus (recruitment of full time/exchange international graduate/ undergraduate students; international faculty member: full‐time, visiting scholars etc) • Natural system: informal relations within NCCU (alumni, goal complexity: task force established to help OIC yet became permanent organization replacing OIC, members drawn from neighborhood who increase particular national recruitment. (hypothetical drama) • Open system: self ‐perpetuating: (command, input, output, feedbacks), (internal) loosely coupling, uncertainty in globalization: with strong international alumni in Taiwan with abundant resources; different international programs (IDAS, IMAS, IMPIS, IMBA etc) virtually independent of each other; competing with other Taiwanese and international neighboring univs Organizations and environments • No organization operates in a vacuum. All organizations must enter into exchanges with the environment. Generally speaking, “environment” often involves outside actors (individuals, groups , other organizations) the focal organization interacts with. These interactions allow organizations to acquire raw materials, hire employees, secure capital, sell products and services, obtain knowledge, and build, lease or buy facilities and equipment, as well as participate in, regulate and oversee exchanges with other actors. • Very much emphasized in Open system perspective and also addressed briefly in Natural system perspective. Environment: several levels • Levels of environment: at least four, not mutually exclusive • organizational sets: sort of networks that a given focal organization is connected and interacted with, typically including suppliers, customers, or competitors; • organizational populations: aggregates of organizations that are alike in some respect, sharing common dominant elements or organizational forms (eg. hospital associations, IR, Commerce, PoliSci associations); some focus on those in competitive relations and their strategies to compete or selection effects by environment • Interorganizational community: collaboration and patterned relations among organizations typically within same geographical territory (problems: boundaries; “horizontal” relations) • Organization fields: a system of organizations sharing relational linkages and cultural rules. (aggregate of frequently‐interacting and consensus‐sharing organizations, including suppliers, consumers, regulatory agencies and others that produce similar products and services. Eg. Authors and publishers; artists and recording studios) The fields as encompassing the other 3 levels. As an intermediate unit, it connects individual organizations with broader social structures and processes. It can be transnational, cross‐boundaries Another conception of environment: “Stakeholders” of private organization • Stakeholders as a focal organization’s immediate environment which its survival or success is at stake • Include: investors, partners, competitors, suppliers, consumers, distributors, advertising and consulting agencies, trade associations, labor unions, local communities, government regulatory agencies (tax, licensing), financial analysts, and the media • (report/paper ideas: In chosen case of organizations, focus on their relations with environment. For environment, define and identify what relevant actors are in chosen case of organization, as above and specify as clear as possible) Environment of organizations: more conceptions: as supply chain, sectors • Environment involves Inter‐organizational network/supply chain: the flow of raw material that forms a linear connections originating with the supply of the most basic raw materials (eg. Petroleum) and subsequently flowing through intermediary organizations (eg. Oil refineries, petroleum distributors, and gasoline stations) to reach the end users (eg. drivers of vehicles); or value‐added activities • Broader environmental sectors organizations encountered: physical, economy, technology, social, culture, political and legal sectors (social: class structure, demographics, mobility patterns, lifestyles, social movements, educational systems, religious practices etc)(cultural: history, tradition, normative expectations for behavior, beliefs, values) • Legal sector (constitutions, laws and legal practices); political sector (distribution of power and nature of political system); economic sector (labor, financial, goods and services markets; property rights; central planning, consumption pattern, intl trade agreements); technology sector (equipment, software, genetics, AI); physical sector (natural resources, nature, mines or oil reserves, accessible harbors, transportation routes, weather conditions, pollution levels) • (Report/paper ideas: try to identify the network or supply chain the chosen case of organization engaged with, as well as the various environmental sectors it faces.)

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