Introduction to Epidemology and causation concepts

I’m stuck on a Writing question and need an explanation.

Models of Causation

Review the required reading in the Background section, and answer the following questions in a paper of at least 6 pages:

  1. Parascandola and Weed (2001) review the five definitions of causation from epidemiologic literature: production, necessary cause, sufficient component cause, probabilistic cause, and counterfactual cause. Compare the strengths and weaknesses of each of these definitions, use new examples. https://jech.bmj.com/content/55/12/905
  2. Maclure and Schneeweiss “Causation of Bias: The Episcope” Create an example real or imagined—in the article they use Alcoholic drinks leads to Migraines, select your own and then review it based the criteria (domains) in the article. http://journals.lww.com/epidem/fulltext/2001/01000/causation_of_bias__the_episcope.19.aspx

Length: Case Assignments should be at least 6 pages (1,300 words) in length.

References: At least three references should be included from academic sources (e.g., peer-reviewed journal articles). Required readings should be included. All references need to be cited using APA format.

Organization: Subheadings should be used to organize your paper according to question.

Format: APA format is required for all assignments at the Ph.D. level. See Syllabus page for more information on APA format.

Grammar and Spelling: While no points are deducted for minor errors, assignments are expected to adhere to standards guidelines of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence syntax. Points may be deducted if grammar and spelling impact clarity.

The following items will be assessed in particular:

  • Relevance—all content is connected to the question.
  • Precision—specific question is addressed. Statements, facts, and statistics are specific and accurate.
  • Depth of discussion—present and integrate points that lead to deeper issues.
  • Breadth—multiple perspectives and references, multiple issues/factors considered.
  • Evidence—points are well-supported with facts, statistics, and references.
  • Logic—presented discussion makes sense; conclusions are logically supported by premises, statements, or factual information.
  • Clarity—writing is concise, understandable, and contains sufficient detail or examples.
  • Objectivity—avoid use of first person and subjective bias.

Additional expectations for the assignment:

  1. Your references and citations should be consistent with a particular formatting style, such as APA.
  2. Your response should be based on scholarly material, such as peer-reviewed articles, white papers, technical papers, etc. Do not include information from non-scholarly materials such as Wikis, encyclopedias, www.freearticles.com (or similar websites).
  3. Your response should incorporate the objectives of the module with the requirements of this assignment.

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