F. Black Culture and Activism
“Black is beautiful”, “Say it now, I’m Black and I’m proud”, Black Power
“African” fashions: Afros hair style, funk music, R&B, Motown Record Company
Muhammed Ali, James Brown, Aretha Franklin, George Clinton
Racism, discrimination, segregation, police brutality, lack of affordable housing, economic inequality
Mass riots in dozens of American cities: Watts Riots in Los Angeles
Black Nationalism, Black Muslims, Nation of Islam, Black Panther Party, Southern Cristian Leadership Conference (SCLC), NAACA, Civil Rights Act Of 1964
Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm x, Fred Hampton, Maulana Ron Karenga, Stokely Carmichael, Angela Davis, Eldridge Cleaver, Elijah Muhammad
Reaction against Black Activism and Civil Rights: John Birch Society, Citizen Councils, J. Edgar Hoover, COINTELPRO, Ku Klux Klan (KKK), George Wallace
Who were the participants in the fight for racial equality in the 60s?
Who were the Freedom Riders of Freedom Summer?
Why was Motown Record Company so successful?
How did the Black Panthers organize their communities?
What influence has the Black Panthers had on society today?
What were the different themes in the songs of popular stars in the 60s?
How did Black cultural expression come into white popular culture?
G. Arts and Media
The arts and media reflected values of the 1960s to different degrees.
Museum art: MOMA, Guggenheim, Rothko, Newman, Pollock, de Kooning, Lichtenstein, Oldenburg, Judy Chicago, Rosenquist, Warhol, Pop Art, Op Art, Minimalism, Psychadelic art, Nam Jam Paik, Buckminster Fuller
Outside the museum: earth art, conceptual art, happenings
TV: Gunsmoke, Bonanza Beverly Hillbillies, Laugh-In,
Movies—The Apartment, West Side Story, Sound of Music, Midnight Cowboy, the Graduate, Easy Rider
Music: (see Black Culture) rock-n-roll, the folk revival, protest songs, psychedelic rock, British (Blues) invasion, Woodstock
James Brown, Joan Baez, Beach Boys, Johnny Cash, The Doors, Bob Dylan, Jimi Hendrix, Arlo Guthrie, Rolling Stones, Paul Simon, Aretha Franklin, Jefferson Airplane, Eric Clapton, Sam Cook, Jim Morrison, Janis Joplin
How did TV reflect the new culture?
How why did art “leave” the museum?
What aspect of culture did art represent?
Why was film in the 1960s more conservative than the visual or musical arts?
How was TV used in the art of the 1960?
How did electricity become part of popular music in the 60s?
How Black is rock-n-roll?
6. Women’s Liberation Movement
Women’s lib, second wave feminism
Gloria Steinem, Betty Friedan and The Feminine Mystique, Bella Abzug, Billie Jean King
Issues: domestic violence, equal pay, affirmative action, “women’s work”, the pill, abortion, legalization of abortion (Rowe vs. Wade), In Loco Parentis “In The Place Of Parents”
Which women did the feminist movement focus on in the 1960s? Who was left out?
What was the resistance to male/female equality in the US?
What were the goals of the 60s feminists?
Where has the movement most succeeded in life in America?
Has feminisms in all areas of public life succeeded in the US compared to other countries?
7. Other Civil Rights Movements
Latin American–Brown Power, Brown Berets, Chicano Movement, the Moratorium, United Farm Workers Association, Gay Liberation Movement, Stonewall Rebellion, prison reform
American Indian Movement (AIM)—Occupation of Wounded Knee, Trail Of Broken Treaties
What were the causes and results of the Moratorium movement in Los Angeles?
What motivated the American Indian Movement takeover of Wounded Knee?
What was its impact on relations between Native Americans and the government?
How did Cesar Chavez organize farm workers in California?
8. The Vietnam War and Anti-War Protests
Military-Industrial Complex, Ho Chi Minh, My Lai Massacre, National Liberation Front (NLF),
(see also US Politics and Government below)
Resistance: Pentagon Papers, Port Huron Statement, Vietnam Veterans Against, Berrigan Brothers, Abbie Hoffman, Che Guevara,
Militant Radicalism: Violent revolution, Weathermen (underground), SDA—Students for a Democratic Society, Symbionese Liberation Army, the New Left
How did the US direct involvement begin in the Vietnam War?
How were student protests against the Vietnam War organized?
Why were there such resistance to the Vietnam War, the war at home?
Were the Vietnamese for liberation or for the Soviet Union?
Was the anti-war movement successful? Has American militarism changed since the 60s?
How did the civil rights movement and anti-war movement work together?
Was John F. Kennedy going to end the Vietnam War?
10. Politics and Government
John F. Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon
Kennedy—called Camelot, like the mythical perfect kingdom, Bay of Pigs, Fidel Castro, Cuban Missile Crisis, meeting with Nikita Khrushchev, , Arms Race, assassination
Johnson’s The Great Society reforms—(see A. Culture: the Good Life, above), major civil rights legislation, great protests at the Chicago Democratic National Convention, 1968, Chicago 7
Nixon—escalation of the War, law and order
The JFK Whitehouse was called Camelot. How true was this image?
How committed were the Kennedys to civil rights for African Americans?
Why was Johnson the one who actually carried out civil rights reforms?
Why is there such a fascination with JFK’s assassination?
11. Science and Technology
Medicine: The pill, Masters and Johnson and the Sexual Revolution
Aerospace: Boeing 747, Space Race, Apollo 11
Environment: Save the Earth, Ecology, Earth Day
Militarism: the Arms Race, Robert Mcnamara, General Westmoreland
Consumer Safety: Ralph Nader, Whole Earth Catalog
How did the findings of Masters and Johnson contribute to the Sexual Revolution?
How were the findings of Masters and Johnson incorrect or updated today?
How did the moon landing fit into to world view of the 1960s?
What were the origins for concerns for the environment in the 1960s?
Why is there such a large difference of opinion today on the understanding of the American war on Vietnam?
Why was there a need for consumer safety laws in the 1960s?