China had been the most strongest nation among east Asian countries as the Qing Dynasty for over a century. Due to its power, when Lord Macartney of Britain made requirements to Qianlong Emperor including requests such as state to state relations, diplomats in Beijing, open ports, and lower tariffs, Qianlong Emperor rejected and only allowed exporting silk, porcelain, and tea to Western countries. However, keeping their Confucianism, not opening up their country, China had struggles with western countries, not only with Britain but also US, France, Japan, Spain, and etc, going through various wars including Opium Wars, Arrow War, and Boxer uprising. At the same time, China had conflicts within their own country; rebellions from the inside. As a result, Western countries won in most Coastal Battles, which forced Qing Dynasty to sign the Unequal Treaties and China gradually lost their power which led their citizens to believe that revolutions are needed in their country. In order to discuss about how revolution was considered in Chinese history between the late 19th century and 20th century, this paper will explain three authors who showed their opinions about revolutions occured.
This is my introduction that I want to use for my essay. This essay need to analyze how revolution has been understood by specific authors in three sources that I will attach.
The questions that needs to be answered in the essay are : How might the authors define “revolution”? What problems are revolutionary changes expected to address? What elements of society or the individual are targeted for revolutionary change? What visions of a future do the authors entertain should their revolutionary (or counter-revolutionary) goals be achieved?